Personal Life of Michael Madhusudan Dutta, Michael Madhusudan Dutt (25 January 1824 – 29 June 1873)…
Intel Corporation history Intel Corporation is an American global manufacturing company and the world’s largest semiconductor chip manufacturer by revenue. It is the inventor of the X86 series of microprocessors, the processor found in most personal computers. Intel was founded on July 18, 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation (some think Integrated Intelligence). In addition to manufacturing computer processors, Intel also manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers, integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics cards, integrated processors and many other things that are needed in computers and communications.
The company was started by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore and Gov. Intel is capable of designing and manufacturing advanced technology chips. Although Intel was initially known only to engineers and technicians, the 1990s commercial “Intel Inside” made it and its “Pentium” processors household names. Intel was an early developer of static RAM and dynamic RAM memory, and this was how their business was known until 1981. When Intel made the first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it did not become their first business because personal computers were not yet popular. In the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessors to meet and stimulate the computer industry.
At this time Intel was the dominant supplier of microprocessor chips and was known to adopt aggressive and sometimes illegal tactics to maintain its market share. Specifically, AMD competes with Microsoft to dominate the PC industry. It was ranked 48th among the world’s 100 most powerful brands in the Millward Brown Optimor ranking of 2010. Intel began research in electrical transmission and generation. Intel recently used 3-dimensional transistors, known as tri-gate transistors.
Intel Headquarters, Santa Clara, California, USA Intel was founded in 1968 in Mountain View, California. Gordon E. Moore (a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit) founded “Fairchild Semiconductor” when they left. Its third employee after its founding was Andy Grove, a chemical engineer who ran the company during the 1980s when Intel thrived. Initially Moore and Noech wanted the company to be named “Moore Noech”. But it sounds almost like “more noise” and is banned because it doesn’t match the name of the electronic product. For about a year thereafter, the name Enem Electronics was used before the name Intel was given. It comes from Integrated Electronics, short for “Intel”. At the time the name Intel on was trademarked for a hotel chain that had to purchase the rights to the name.
Since its inception, Intel has been able to differentiate itself with its semiconductor manufacturing capabilities. Their initial products were static random access memory chips, and Intel’s business grew in the 1970s when they were able to manufacture and expand them. They began to produce more and more products, still dominating the various memory components. When Intel produced its first commercial processor in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers in 1972, it was still making only dynamic random access memory chips in the early 1980s. Around 1983, Japanese manufacturers began making semiconductors, increasing competition.
By doing this, Intel’s income started to decrease and the success of personal computer (IBM personal computer) at that time, CEO Groove company focused on microprocessors. They also changed their business fundamentals. In the late 1980s, his decision proved successful. As a supplier of microprocessors, their company was then successful in the personal computer market and for 10 years they provided unprecedented revenue and hardware to the PC industry. The “Intel Inside” marketing program they started in 1991 fueled their success by keeping their customers loyal and engaged.
By bringing their Pentium processors into homes, Intel’s early years were featured in a documentary film called “Something Ventured”. Declining demand and competition for dominance After 2000, demand for processors declined. Competitors, especially AMD, acquired a large share of the market share. Initially in low-power and mid-power processors and gradually in the entire product market and in the core market, Intel’s position declined dramatically. In the early 2000s, company CEO Craig Barrett tried to expand the company’s business beyond focusing on semiconductors.
But these efforts brought only some success. In 1984, Intel and the Semiconductor Industry Association took the initiative to create the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act. Until then, Intel had been involved in the case for some years. Because American law did not recognize intellectual property rights to Intel’s microprocessor designs in the first place. Acts were passed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Intel then sued companies that wanted to make competitors to the 80386 CPU chip. However, they lost the case.
In 2005, CEO Paul Otellini restructured the company and focused the company’s core processor and chipset business (on various platforms). Due to which they have to hire 20,000 new workers. In September 2006, Intel’s earnings dropped and they restructured the company. As a result, 10,500 workers or 10% of the total workforce were laid off in July 2006.
Losing its position in the market, Intel started developing new product models to maintain its old top position. Known as the “tic-tock model”, this initiative is based on the introduction of new microarchitectures and process introductions annually. In 2006, Intel produced P6 and NetBrush products with a size of 65 nm. A year later it unveiled the core microarchitecture broadly. It boosts the performance of the processor so much that Intel is able to advance in its campaign to occupy the top spot. In 2008, Intel introduced another Penryn microarchitecture, which uses 45 nm instead of 65 nm. And the following year they released the Nihalem architecture, which uses silicon formed on a 32nm process. It entered the market successfully and made a positive impact. Intel is not the first microprocessor corporation to do this. For example, around 1996, the graphics chip manufacturer Nvidia had to face the same problem.
Xmap’s processor sales business
On June 27, 2006, the sale of Intel’s Xscale assets was announced. Intel Xscale processor business to Marvell Technology Group. Agreed to sell for about 600 million dollars. This was due to Intel’s divestiture of the X86 core and server businesses, which ended on November 9, 2006.
In August 2010, Intel announced two major integrations. On August 19, Intel announced plans to buy McAfee (a computer security technology company). They plan to buy it for about $7.68 billion and they announced that if the deal goes through, the new product will be rolled out before 2011. Two weeks before this announcement, the company announced that it would buy Infineon Technologies (a wireless products business). They use Infineon’s products in laptops, smartphones, netbooks, tablets and computer products, and at the same time venture to connect wireless modems to Intel’s silicon chips.
Intel received approval from European Union regulators to buy McAfee on January 26, 2011. Intel agrees to provide the security firm with all relevant information about its products that the security firm can use on Intel’s chips and personal computers. This brings Intel’s workforce to about 90,000, including 12,000 software engineers. In March 2011, Intel acquired a majority stake in SysSoft (a Cairo-based company).
February 2011: The company will build a new microprocessor in Chandler, Arizona, which is expected to be completed by 2013. And the cost is about 5 billion. These will require 4000 workers. Three-quarters of the company’s products are manufactured in the United States. Although three percent of the income is from abroad. April 2011; It will produce smartphones in a tie-up with GTE Corporation, its pilot project in the Chinese market as it dominates mobile phone ARM processors. The smartphones will be based on Intel Atom processor.
- Product and market history
- Esram and Microprocessor
The company’s first products were shift register memory and RAM integrated circuits, and Intel grew significantly in the 1970s as a competitor in DRAM, EsRAM, and ROM. Simultaneously, Intel engineers Marcian Hopp, Federico Fagin, Stanley Meijer, and Masotoshi Shima invented Intel’s first microprocessor. It is developed and modified from BGCOM (a Japanese company) calculator ASIC or ASIC instead. The Intel 4004 was released on November 15, 1971. However, microprocessors did not become Intel’s main business until the mid-1980s.
Microprocessor from DirArom
In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer, Intel’s profits were under pressure from Japanese memory chips, and company head Andy Groove turned the company’s focus solely to microprocessors. Groove mentions this in the book Only the Paranoid Survive. A key component of his plan was to reform, then consider reforms, to become the sole source of the popular 8086 microprocessor.
Since then, Integrated Circuit has remained largely untrusted as a single supplier, but Groove produced processors in three different geographic areas and stopped licensing chip designs to competitors such as Zilog and AMD. When the PC industry grew in the late 1980s and into the 1990s, Intel was the dominant profitable company.
Intel, X86 processors, and IBM PCs
Intel 8742 processor integrated circuit, an 8-bit microcontroller with 12 MHz CPU, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM and input/output The Intel 4004 and its series 8008 and 8080 were never majorly profitable microprocessors, although microprocessors were important. When the processor 8086 and its successor, the 8088, were released in 1978, Intel undertook marketing and sales plan called “Operation Crash” to attract customers. IBM released their first personal computer in 1981, and it quickly became a success.
In 1982, Intel developed the 80286 microprocessor, which two years later, was used in IBM’s PC. Compaq, the first IBM PC clone manufacturer, produced a desktop system in 1985 based on the 80286 processor. and in 1986 produced the fastest processor with the 80386, which overtook BM in the speed race and emerged as a competitor, with Intel emerging as a major supplier. In 1975, the company began a project to develop a 32-bit microprocessor, which they released in 1981 as the Intel IPX 432. But this project was so modern and high-powered that it could not be executed in the mentioned capacity and it was not successful in the market. So Intel started marketing X86 32-bit instead.
At this time, Andy Groove shifted the company’s focus from DRAM to microprocessors. His idea was to be a “single-source” or “sole-distributor” of microprocessors (386). Earlier, Intel only produced microprocessors in name and various problems in production would either interrupt the production or stop it altogether. This would disrupt the supply to consumers. In this situation, consumers used chips from different manufacturers to ensure supply. The 8080 and 8086 series of microprocessors were manufactured by various companies, notably AMD. Grove decided.
Not allowing other manufacturers to design the 386, he planned to build it in three different locations (Santa Clara; Hillsborough, California; Oligan, Ponyx; Arizona) and guaranteed uninterrupted supply to consumers. If the Compaq DeskPro 386 succeeds, the 386 becomes one of the CPUs of choice, and Intel is the sole exclusive supplier. As a result of this commercial success and profitability, Intel focused on making more high-performance chips. By doing this, Intel was able to take itself to the top position in the microprocessor chip business.
486, Pentium and Itanium
Intel released the 486 microprocessor in 1989 and formed a second design team in 1990, the designs codenamed “P5” and “P6”. The P5 was released in 1993 as the Intel Pentium. The name is kept because of the registration problem as it is quite difficult to register the number. In 1995 the P6 which was the Pentium Pro was released and in 1997 it was upgraded to the Pentium 3.
The chip design team at Santa Clara attempted to develop a pin design codenamed the X86 architecture in 1993. But the first attempt was made the following year. The initiative was later revived as a joint effort between Intel and Hewlett-Packard engineers, although Intel took responsibility for the initial design. The result was IA-64, a 64-bit architecture (Itanium) that finally hit the market in June 2011. But the performance of Itanium was not as expected. This proved inferior to the X86 architecture with AMD. Itanium was developed and marketed by 2009.
Hillsborough’s team designed the Wilmette processor (codenamed P67 and P68) which was marketed as the Pentium 4. Supercomputers Intel’s Scientific Computing Division was formed in 1984 by Justin Ratner. In order to design and manufacture parallel computers based on microprocessors that will be connected in hypercube topology. In 1992, the name was changed to Intel Supercomputing Systems Division and IWarp (iWarp) Architects was taken over. This department has designed many supercomputer systems such as Intel IPSC/1, IPSC/2, IPSC/860, Paragon and ASCII Red.
Partnered with Apple
On June 6, 2005, Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced that Apple would use Intel’s X86 in its PowerPC, as the future PowerPC performance was not meeting Apple’s needs. The first Mac. The Macintosh computer, which used Intel processors, was announced on January 10, 2006, and Apple responded by August users for Macs with Intel processors. Apple’s XServ Server is powered by Intel’s Xeon processor.
Core 2 Duo Ad Conflict
In 2007, the company released a print ad for its Core 2 Duo processor in which six African (dark-skinned) runners bowed to a Caucasian (white-skinned) man (the photo was actually taken from a running field) in an office. According to Nancy Bhagat, Intel’s vice president of marketing, the public found the ad “stupid and insulting”. The campaign was quickly pulled and several executives publicly apologized via their corporate websites.
Intel’s Classmate PC is the first low-cost notebook from the Intel company.
As of September 2006, Intel had approximately 100,000 employees and 200 support centers worldwide. Its 2005 revenue was 38.8 billion and it was ranked 49th on the Fortune 500. Its stock symbol is ISTC on the American stock exchange NASDAQ. In February 2009, its first customers were HP and Dell.
Leadership and corporate structure
Robert Noyce was the CEO of Intel when it was founded (in 1968), joined by co-founder Gordon Moore (in 1975). Andy Grove headed the company in 1979 and became CEO in 1987 when Gordon Moore became chairman. In 1998, Gov succeeded Gordon Moore and Craig Barrett (then head of the company) and resigned. On 18 May 2005, Barrett handed over the reins of the company to Paul Otellini before resigning. Paul Otellini was the head of the company and was responsible for the design of the Intel processor used in the IBM PC.
The board of directors elected Otellini as CEO, and replaced Barrett with Gove, who was chairman. Although Grove stepped down as chairman, he also served as a special advisor to the company. In May 2009, Barrett stepped down as chairman and Jane Shaw was elected as the new chairman. The current members of the Board of Directors are Craig Barrett, Charlene Bafesky, Susan Decker, James Gazie, Reid Handot, Paul Otellini, James Plummer, David Potrak, Jane Shaw, John Chronoton and David Yoffey.
Financing a school
Intel is the leading employer in Rio Rancho, New Mexico. In 1997, Rio Rancho High School was established with joint funding from Sandoval County and Intel Corporation.
Intel has a market capitalization of $122.41 billion (as of February 22, 2011), and is traded on the NASDAQ under the symbol INTC. Other indices that trade shares are – Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500, NASDAQ-100, Russell 1000 Index, Russell 1000 Growth Index, SOX and GSTI Software Index. On July 15, 2008, Intel announced that they had the highest revenue in company history in 2008.
The famous D b Db Gb Db A b jingle, Sonic Logo, Audio Sonic Logo was created by Musikvergnuegen and written by Walter Wierzoa (of the 1980s Austrian band Edelweiss). Intel’s Pentium 3, 4, and Core processors initially (each) changed the sonic logo and tune, but the jingle is still used.
IT Manager 3: The Invisible Powers
IT Manager 3: Invisible Forces is a web based simulation game developed by Intel. In this game you can manage the IT branch of a company. The objective of this game is to use technology and skills to expand businesses from small to global.
Intel’s office in Israel faced protests/demonstrations by Orthodox Jews on Saturday. But there was no report of any destructive activity. According to a December 2009 report by some workers (who were working overtime on Shabbat), Intel’s status in Israel was unchanged.
In the 1980s, it was one of the top ten semiconductor sellers worldwide. In 1991, Intel was the largest chip maker by revenue and has held that position ever since. Other top semiconductor companies are AMD, Samsung, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. Competitors in the PC chip set are AMD, VAZ Technologies, Sys and Nvidia. Competitors for Intel’s network devices are Freescale, Infineon, Broadcom, Marvell Technology Group, and AMCC. Competitors for flash memory devices are Spanson, Samsung, Qmonda, Toshiba, STElectronics and Hynix.
In the X86 processor market, the only major competitor is AMD, with whom it has had a full cross-licensing agreement since 1976. It stated that each partner could use the other’s patented technology without penalty for a period of time. This deal was canceled when AMD went bankrupt in an event where some smaller competitors such as VAZA and Transmeta made low-power X86 processors for low-power computers and some portable devices. Claims for anti-competition
In 2005, the local Fair Trade Commission found Intel to be in violation of Japanese antimonopoly laws. The Commission asked Intel to withdraw its concessions, which discriminated against AMD. Intel accepted their orders to avoid legal trouble.
In July 2007, the European Commission accused Intel of anti-competitive practices, specifically AMD. Intel pays for delays or cancellations. At the same time, they provide chips to government institutions or government and educational institutions at a lower price than the normal price. Intel’s claims were absurd and false, but rather that they created a consumer-friendly market. General Counsel Bruce Soyle claimed the commission had misunderstood some data points that included prices and production costs.
In February 2008, Intel commented that its Munich office was raided by European Union regulators. Intel reports it was helping investigators. Penalties up to 10% of Intel’s annual revenue are deducted. At the same time, AMD released a website to strongly defend the complaint. In June 2008, the European Union imposed new fines against Intel. In May 2009, the European Union found evidence that Intel had engaged in anticompetitive conduct and immediately imposed a fine of 1.44 billion. They found evidence of Intel paying Acer, Dell, HP, Lenovo and NEC for the use of their chips and damaging other companies, including AMD. The European Commission said that Intel was acting deliberately to foreclose competitors in order to maintain its market, which was in complete breach South Korea
In September 2007, South Korean regulators accused Intel of violating antitrust laws. The investigation began in February 2006, when officials raided Intel’s South Korean office. If found guilty, it will be fined 3% of its annual sales. In June 2008, the Fair Trading Commission ordered Intel to pay a $25.5 million fine. Allegedly, Intel took advantage of its huge business position to pay Korean computer makers on the condition that they not buy products from AMD.
New York launched an investigation into Intel in January 2008 to see if it violated antitrust laws in the pricing and sales of microprocessors. In June 2008, the Federal Trade Commission opened a similar investigation against Intel. In December 2009, the Federal Trade Commission announced that it would take administrative action against Intel in September 2010. In November 2008, following a two-year investigation, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo charged Intel with bribery and coercion of other companies. It is claimed that Intel threatened computer makers to buy more of their chips than competitors and to take out money if they merged or worked closely with competitors, but Intel denied the allegations.
On July 22, 2010, Dell agreed to the U. S. to settle with the Securities and Exchange Commission where it was fined nearly $100 million because Dell would not disclose accurate accounting information to its investors. In particular, the CEC fined the period from 2002-2006, when Dell’s agreement with Intel was conditional on receiving rebates and not using AMD’s chips. These rebates were not disclosed to investors.
But depending on the financial condition of the company used to meet the needs of the investors. CEC says that in the first three months of 2007, 70% of operating income was received. Dell also took on AMD as a supplier in 2006, causing Intel to stop giving those rebates, causing Dell’s financial situation to deteriorate. of EU antitrust rules. Along with the fine, Intel is asked to stop all illegal activities. Intel says it will appeal against it.
Thank you so much.